Contre le poison

Texte du charme

Gemyne ðu, mucgwyrt, hwæt þu ameldodest, 
hwæt þu renadest æt Regenmelde. 
Una þu hattest, yldost wyrta.              
Ðu miht wið III and wið XXX,          
þu miht wiþ attre and wið onflyge,              
þu miht wiþ þam laþan ðe geond lond færð.            
Ond þu, wegbrade, wyrta modor,              
eastan opene, innan mihtigu;              
ofer ðe cræte curran, ofer ðe cwene reodan,
ofer ðe bryde bryodedon, ofer þe fearras fnærdon.              
Eallum þu þon wiðstode and wiðstunedest;              
swa ðu wiðstonde attre and onflyge              
and þæm laðan þe geond lond fereð.              
Stune hætte þeos wyrt, heo on stane geweox;       
stond heo wið attre, stunað heo wærce.              
Stiðe heo hatte, wiðstunað heo attre,              
wreceð heo wraðan, weorpeð ut attor.             
+ Þis is seo wyrt seo wiþ wyrm gefeaht,              
þeos mæg wið attre, heo mæg wið onflyge,        
heo mæg wið ðam laþan ðe geond lond fereþ.              
Fleoh þu nu, attorlaðe, seo læsse ða maran,              
seo mare þa læssan, oððæt him beigra bot sy.              
Gemyne þu, mægðe, hwæt þu ameldodest,              
hwæt ðu geændadest æt Alorforda;     
þæt næfre for gefloge feorh ne gesealde              
syþðan him mon mægðan to mete gegyrede.              
Þis is seo wyrt ðe wergulu hatte;              
ðas onsænde seolh ofer sæs hrygc              
ondan attres oþres to bote.   
Ðas VIIII magon wið nygon attrum.             
+ Wyrm com snican, toslat he man;              
ða genam Woden VIIII wuldortanas,              
sloh ða þa næddran, þæt heo on VIIII tofleah.              
Þær geændade æppel and attor,      
þæt heo næfre ne wolde on hus bugan.             
Fille and finule, felamihtigu twa,              
þa wyrte gesceop witig drihten,              
halig on heofonum, þa he hongode;              
sette and sænde on VII worulde
earmum and eadigum eallum to bote.              
Stond heo wið wærce, stunað heo wið attre,              
seo mæg wið III and wið XXX,              
wið feondes hond and wið þæs hond and wið frea begde,
wið malscrunge minra wihta.    
+ Nu magon þas VIIII wyrta wið nygon wuldorgeflogenum,
wið VIIII attrum and wið nygon onflygnum,              
wið ðy readan attre, wið ðy runlan attre,              
wið ðy hwitan attre, wið ðy wedenan attre,              
wið ðy geolwan attre, wið ðy grenan attre,        
wið ðy wonnan attre, wið ðy wedenan attre,              
wið ðy brunan attre, wið ðy basewan attre,              
wið wyrmgeblæd, wið wætergeblæd,              
wið þorngeblæd, wið þystelgeblæd,              
wið ysgeblæd, wið attorgeblæd,       
gif ænig attor cume eastan fleogan              
oððe ænig norðan cume              
oððe ænig westan ofer werðeode.             
Crist stod ofer adle ængan cundes.              
Ic ana wat ea rinnende        
and þa nygon nædran behealdað;              
motan ealle weoda nu wyrtum aspringan,              
sæs toslupan, eal sealt wæter,              
ðonne ic þis attor of ðe geblawe.    
  
Mugcwyrt, wegbrade þe eastan open sy, lombescyrse, attorlaðan, mageðan, netelan, wudusuræppel, fille and finul, ealde sapan. Gewyrc ða wyrta to duste, mængc wiþ þa sapan and wiþ þæs æpples gor. Wyrc slypan of wætere and of axsan, genim finol, wyl on þære slyppan and beþe mid æggemongc, þonne he þa sealfe on de, ge ær ge æfter. Sing þæt galdor on ælcre þara wyrta, III ær he hy wyrce and on þone æppel ealswa; ond singe þon men in þone muð and in þa earan buta and on ða wunde þæt ilce gealdor, ær he þa sealfe on de.
 

Traduction

Remember, Mugwor, what you reveal,
What you set to order in solemn pronouncement.
Singular you are called, oldest of the herbs.
You could avail against three and against thirty,
You could avail against poison and against contagion,
You could avail against the hated things that fare throughout the land.

And you, waybread, mother of herbs,
Open to the east, mighty within­
Over the carter’s creaking, over the woman’s reddening,
Over the bride marrying, over the bulls’ snorting.
You stood against all things and you dashed against them
As you withstood poison
And contagionand those hateful things that flew throughout the country.

The herb is called nettle, it grows upon the stone,
Standing against poison, crashing against pain.
It is called stiff, dashing against poison,
Avenging cruelty, casting out venom.
This is the herb that fought against the worm,
This can avail against poison, this can avail against contagion,
This can avail against hated things that fare throughout the land.

Now fly, cock’s-spur, the less is more,
The more is less, until they both be cures.
Remember, kindred, what you reveal,
What you finish off at Alorford,
So that it never gave up the spirit to disease
After one prepared one of this tribe for his food.

This is the herb that is called the crab apple,
Which sends the seal across the spine of the sea,
An enemy of another poison, its remedy.
These nine herbs can avail against nine poisons.
The worm comes creeping, tearing into the man,
Then Woden took up nine glorious boughs,
Striking then the serpent, it flew into nine pieces.
There the apple and the venom were destroyed,
So that it never wished to bring down your house.

Thyme and fennel, a mighty powerful pair,
The wise Lord shaped these herbs,
Holy in heaven, those he hung up,
Set up and sent down into the seven worlds
For the wretched and the blessed, as cure for all.

It stands against pain, dashing against poison,
It can avail against three and against thirty,
Against the fiend’s hand and against destruction,
Against the bewitchment of wicked creatures.

Now can these nine herbs avail against evil spirits,
Against nine poisons and against nine diseases,
Against the scarlet poison, against the stinking poison,
Against the white poison, against the purple poison,
Against the yellow poison, against the green poison,
Against the black poison, against the blue poison,
Against the brown poison, against the crimson poison,
Against the snake-blister, against the water-blister,
Against the thorn-blister, against the thistle-blister,
Against ice-blister, against poison-blister,

If any poison come flying from the east
Or any should come from the north,
Or any from the west over the nations of men.
Christ stood over the plague of any kind.

I alone know the running water
Where the nine serpents occupy nearby
They might spring forth now in all forests with herbs,
Slipping away to the sea, all the salt water,
When I blow this poison away from you.

Mugwort, way-bread, nettle, crab-apple, thyme and fennel, the elder soap-plant. Pound these herbs into dust, mix with soap and with apple-dirt. Make into a paste with water and ashes, take fennel and wool into the paste and bathe it with beaten eggs, then make it into a salve, either before or after. Sing this spell upon all of the herbs, three times before one makes it and also upon the apples, and sing for the men by mouth and into their ear both and into the wound that same spell, before one applies that salve.

Commentaire sur la traduction
Site de la traduction : https://oldenglishpoetry.camden.rutgers.edu/the-metrical-charms/

Il existe aussi une traduction plus ancienne dans Grendon, Felix, "The Anglo-saxon charms", The Journal of American Folklore, April-June, 1909, Vol. 22, No. 84, p105-237, American Folklore Society, p191
Commentaire sur la formule

Charme des neuf Herbes. Ce charme est d'origine Viking. On retrouve la mention d'Odin coupant le serpent (symbole des maladies) en 9 maux pour pouvoir être soigné avec 9 herbes.

Les neuf Herbes sont : L'armoise, le plantain, l'ortie, la vipérine ou la bétoine (Incertain pour cette herbe mais plante de la famille des Belladones), la camomille, la pomme sauvage, cresson de fontaine, cerfeuil musque ou thym, le fenouil.

Date de copie du charme
1re moitié XIe siècle
Description du charme
Identifiant du charme
11-04
Domaine d'application
Fonction
Modalités d'application
Forme textuelle
Langue(s) du charme
Manuscrit contenant le charme
Source

Recueil de recettes
Titre du recueil ou du traité
Lacnunga (Leechbook)
Manuscrit
London, British Library, Harley, MS 585, 160r-163v, XIe siècle.
Place du charme dans le feuillet : Corps du texte
Description du manuscrit :

Codex en parchemin et une feuille de papier. 192 X 115mm. Textes en vieil anglais, latin, irlandais, et vieux français. Lacununga (Leechbook) : collection de vieux réceptaires médicaux, charmes magiques et invocations en vieil anglais, latin et vieil irlandais. 

Numérisation du manuscrit : http://www.bl.uk/manuscripts/Viewer.aspx?ref=harley_ms_585_f160r
Édition

Cockayne, Thomas Oswald, Leechdoms, wortcunning, and starcraft of early England : being a collection of documents... illustrating the history of science in this country before the Norman conquest. Vol. 3, Londres, Her Majesty's stationery office, 1864. (En ligne : https://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k50239k).

Bibliographie

Grendon, Felix, "The Anglo-saxon charms", The Journal of American Folklore, 1909, 22-84, p105-237, American Folklore Society, p191.

Pettit, Edward, Anglo-Saxon Remedies, Charms, and Prayers from British Library MS Harley 585: The « Lacnunga », Lewiston et Lampeter, Edwin Mellen Press, 2001.

Contributeur(s)/trice(s)
Valentine Viaud